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Грамматика английского языка - Adjectives - 1

       You are none the worse for the experience.


a)      if the worst comes to the worstв худшем случае

e.g. If the worst comes to the worst, I can always go back home  to my parents.


g) to go from bad to worse – становиться все хуже и хуже

e.g. Thinks went from bad to worse in the family.


h) as best -  в полную меру старания, как только можно

e.g. He made a living as best he could.


i) at (the) best -  в лучшем случае

e.g. She cannot get away from her home for long. At (the) best she can stay with us for two days.



Substantivization of Adjectives.


   Sometimes adjectives become substantivized. In this case they have the functions of nouns in the sentence and are always preceded by the definite article. Substantivized adjectives may have two meanings:

1)      They may indicate a class of persons in a general sense (e.g. the poor = poor people, the dead = dead people, etc.) Such adjectives are plural in meaning and take a plural verb.

e.g. The old receive pensions.

       The young are always romantic, aren’t they?

       The blind are taught trades in special schools.


   If we wish to denote a single person we must add a noun.

e.g. The old man receives a pension.


   If we wish to refer to a particular group of persons (not the whole class), it is aslo necessary to add a noun.

e.g. The young are usually intolerant.

       The young men are fishing.


   Some adjectives denoting nationalities (e.g. English, French, Dutch) are used in the same way.

e.g. The English are great lovers of tea.

       There were a few English people among the tourists.


2)      Substantivized adjectives may also indicate an abstract notion. Then they are singular in meaning and take a singular verb.

e.g. The good in him overweighs the bad.

      My mother never lost her taste for extravagant.


Syntactic Functions of Adjectives.


   Adjectives may serve in the sentence as:

1)      an attribute

e.g. Do you see the small green boat, which has such an odd shape?

       The lights of the farm blazed out in the windy darkness.

   Adjectives used as attributes usually immediately precede the noun. Normally there is no pause between the adjective and the noun. Such attributes are called close attributes.

   However, an adjective placed in pre-position to the noun may be separated from it by a pause. Then it becomes a loose attribute.

e.g. Clever and tactful, George listened to my story with deep concern.


   Yet loose attributes are more often found in post-position to the noun.

e.g. My father, happy and tired, kissed me good-night.


2)      a predicative

e.g. Her smile was almost professional.

       He looked mature, sober and calm.


3)      part of a compound verbal predicate

e.g. He stood silent, with his back turned to the window.

       She lay motionless, as if she were asleep.


4)      an objective predicative

e.g. I thought him very intelligent.

       She wore her hair short.


5)      a subjective predicative

e.g. The door was closed tight.

       Her hair was dyed blonde.


   It should be noted that most adjectives can be used both attributively and predicatively, but some, among them those beginning with a-, can be used only as predicatives (e.g. afraid, asleep, along, alive, awake, ashamed and also content, sorry, well, ill, due, etc.)

   A few adjectives can be used only as attributes (e.g. outer, major, minor, only, whole, former, latter  and some others)


Position of Adjectives.


  1  Most adjectives can be used in a noun group, after determiners and numbers if there are any, in front of the noun.

e.g. He had a beautiful smile.

      She bought a loaf of white bread.

      There was no clear evidence.


 2  Most adjectives can also be used after a link verb such as ‘be’, ‘become’, or ‘feel’.

e.g. I'm cold.

       I felt angry.

       Nobody seemed amused.


3. Some adjectives are normally used only after a link verb.







For example, we can say ‘She was glad’, but you do not talk about ‘a glad woman’.

I wanted to be alone.

We were getting ready for bed.

I'm not quite sure.

He didn't know whether to feel glad or sorry.

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